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The most mysterious book in the world: what is written in the Voynich manuscript? You can read it and download online

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The most mysterious book in the world: what is written in the Voynich manuscript?

The interpretation of the meaning of the Voynich book has been struggling for more than a century. Scientists still managed to decipher something. The Voynich manuscript is considered one of the most mystical books in the history of mankind. Written in the early Renaissance in the XVI century, the manuscript remained unknown for several centuries and was inherited around the world.

Voynich manuscript

The mysterious manuscript in an unreadable language remained unknown until 1912. Then the antiquarian and bookseller Wilfrid Voynich bought the manuscript from the Jesuit Order. The new owner could not establish who owned the mysterious book. The manuscript consists of 240 pages made of calfskin, on which the text is written from left to right. On some pages, there are colored illustrations on botanical and astronomical themes, mysterious drawings of bathing women, zodiac circles.

To study the manuscript, historians conducted a radiocarbon analysis. It was established that the book was written back in the 1240s. Modern cryptologists pay attention to the text: the symbols are very similar to the language, but no one has met this language in modern times. The letters resemble ornate patterns: those that take up more space in the line are called "gallows letters". The letters go with a certain sequence - this allowed historians to establish that some text is encrypted in the manuscript. Examining the writing styles, experts suggested that the manuscript was created by two scribes. The drawings and patterns that adorn each page were created by a third author. There are three "theories" of the origin of the Voynich manuscript.

The Voynich manuscript is a cipher

Some historians believe that the book is written in a cipher-a secret code. So, in their opinion, the authors wanted to hide the mysterious meaning. There are no words of one, two, or ten letters in the book. Inside the words, the letters are located at the beginning, end, or even in the middle, so it is very difficult to recognize the language in which the author wrote. Some symbols resemble Arabic letters, some are Latin. Since in the golden age they actively tried to predict the future and transmit messages to the next generations, the author of the manuscript could also be an Elizabethan mystic, John Dee. He was engaged in alchemy and astrology — in this case, the illustrations of the astrological circle are also logical.

Text in the Voynich Manuscript (digitized)

Text in the Voynich Manuscript (digitized)

Books are written in cipher usually have a key text attached to them, but the Voynich manuscript did not have such a thing. The researchers are sure that the manuscript was sent to an already familiar addressee, who already owned the text key and easily solved the cipher. But if the book really hides a big message for posterity, then why are there numerous drawings of flowers and other plants on the pages? The supporters of the theory have not yet found an answer to this question.

Voynich's manuscript is fake

The author of the manuscript is unknown. Voynich's book was named after the discoverer who showed it to the world and became known only thanks to the discoverer who brought it to the United States. What if the manuscript was written in a meaningless language, and later sold to a gullible buyer? Proponents of this theory put forward two theses. Some believe that the author is a fraudster from the Middle Ages, who wanted to cash in on notable collectors. After all, before Voynich, the manuscript was owned by the King of Germany Rudolf III, the Czech scientist Markus Johannes Marzi, the inventor Athanasius Kircher. In the XVIII century, the manuscript was transferred to the Pontifical Gregorian University.

The Voynich manuscript

Others believe that the author of the mysterious manuscript is Voynich himself because it was he who sold old manuscripts and understood the signs of originality. Perhaps at the beginning of the XX century, Voynich created an identical old manuscript and showed it to the public to arouse interest. In the 1950s, the manuscript was studied by cryptologist William Friedman, who during the Second World War changed the principle of operation of the Japanese PURPLE encryption machine. In 2004, the world was shocked by the statement of linguist Gordon Rugg. He claimed that Voynich forged the document in order to get more money from museums. Following Rugg, historians conducted an expert examination and refuted the words of the linguist. The book was indeed written in the 1400s. A few years later, experts who studied the manuscript compared the author's handwriting and writing style with a person in a trance.

The Voynich Manuscript - a draft of the alphabet creation

Many scientists struggled to unravel the contents of the manuscript. Some people assumed that the text was nothing more than a meaningless set of characters. But experts are confused by the sequence of certain words. Linguists suggest that this is how medieval scientists tried to create an alphabet, and the manuscript was written in an existing language that was only spoken, not written. The manuscript is compared to the rongorongo tablets invented on Easter Island. Now it is impossible to read the tablets because everyone who knows this letter has died.

Voynich manuscript

by the way, we do not understand why we did not try to decipher it from Russian, so in this fragment, there are words in Russian "night"(ночная) and "new" (новая). With that in mind. that there are bioloigical terms here, and the names of such a plan exist to this day. It seems that the decoders are too keen on mathematical calculations and know languages superficially

Supporters of this theory consider the author of the book to be the philosopher Roger Bacon, who lived in the XIII century. During his lifetime, Bacon tried to create universal laws of grammar, so it is likely that the philosopher wrote a manuscript for the study of a new language.

In this case, the fancy drawings on the pages of the book could be illustrations to the text that were applied later — for example, they mean the words applied or simply decorate the pages. But why are most of the drawings designed in biological and astrological themes? What unites these sciences? Scientists are also asking this question in the XXI century. Perhaps the find is an encyclopedia containing knowledge about unknown people.

Opinion of modern specialists

Biologists suggest that unknown symbols hide recipes for pharmacological drugs. This is evidenced by the images of plants that could be the ingredients of medicines. When the manuscript was digitized, scientists discovered an "extraneous letter" in high resolution. On some pages, single Latin letters were printed, which could be used by healers and pharmacologists. The theory of modern linguists was confirmed by historians who traced the path of the book — in 1612, it was in Rome, where the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II gave it to the physician Jacob Synapius. Jacob could use it for his own recordings.

In the 2010s, researchers were able to unravel the meanings of two words from the manuscript. One of them is located next to the seven stars and can mean Taurun, which is consonant with Taurus (Taurus). In this case, the stars are the seven Pleiades sisters in the constellation of Taurus. Another word in the picture reminded scientists of the word Centaurun, consonant with Centaurea (cornflower). In the picture — just a plant that looks like a cornflower!

Voynich manuscript

Two uncovered words in a hundred years are clearly not enough to solve 240 pages, so enthusiasts do not lose hope of becoming the discoverers of the Voynich manuscript. In 2019, the British linguist Gerard Cheshire from the University of Bristol said that he had solved a centuries-old mystery. In his opinion, the manuscript is written in the Proto-Roman language — the "ancestor" of Latin and the languages of the Mediterranean. The manuscript is about women's health, Cheshire claimed. He managed to decipher several words and illustrations. As a result, Cheshire said that the manuscript was compiled by nuns of the Dominican Order for the Queen of Aragon, Maria of Castile, around the middle of the XV century.

Not everyone shared Cheshire's discovery: colleagues called his works pseudoscientific, and the University of Bristol refused to cooperate. In response to Cheshire's statements, several scientists spoke at once. According to them, the linguist wanted to get fame at the expense of the document, and it is impossible to decipher the manuscript. In 2021, the manuscript is currently in the Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscripts Library at Yale University. There are still disputes about the meaning of the text of the Voynich book, but unraveling the meanings of some words is the first step on the way to a sensation.

Voynich manuscript download PDF

download Voynich manuscript pdf

download Voynich manuscript or read it online 


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