UFOs: theories and hypotheses - review

UFOs: myths and reality - a study by scientists

Many theories have been proposed to explain the UFO phenomenon. The list given here is by no means exhaustive, but it allows you to get an idea of the thirty most hotly debated hypotheses. Among the vast number of attempts to unravel the mystery, there may be the right answer - or, more accurately, the answers, since one solution is most likely not sufficient to explain the entire range of phenomena described as "UFOs". Perhaps the final answer has not yet been found, and it is possible that you will offer it.

UFOs: theories and hypotheses - review


UFOs and their crews are often considered by some to be the highest form of life in relation to humans, who reside solely on Earth. These elusive beings occasionally make their presence known by directly contacting individuals. Some even speculate that these creatures may be akin to angels, as described in various world religions. Additionally, the traditions of numerous cultures describe beings who reside in the heavens and watch over their earthly counterparts. It is presumptuous to believe that we are the sole controllers of this planet. We may not be fully aware of their presence, but we share this planet with entities whose nature is incomprehensible to us. It is presumptuous to believe that we are the sole controllers of this planet. It is presumptuous to believe that we are the sole controllers of this planet.

Atmospheric life forms

UFOs have been theorized by some researchers to be living creatures inhabiting our atmosphere, similar to how fish or whales inhabit the ocean. Despite the presence of strange lights visible on NASA film footage taken from Earth's orbit, our radars and probes have not yet detected their presence. However, this does not discount the possibility of their existence. The origin of these phenomena has not been established yet. However, they are considered a part of the Earth's atmospheric cover.

The extraterrestrial hypothesis

UFO sightings have often been attributed to extraterrestrial visitations, but it is important to consider that this is just one of many possible explanations. However, the study of UFOs remains an important area of research and investigation. While some believe that these sightings are evidence of alien aircraft, it is important to approach this hypothesis with caution and consider other possibilities. It has been suggested that these sightings could be attributed to natural phenomena or human-made objects. It is now widely accepted that extraterrestrial visitors originate from other star systems, as space exploration has disproven the earlier theory that they come from planets within our own Solar System. Despite the discovery of exoplanets, no definitive evidence of extraterrestrial life has been found, and interstellar travel remains beyond our current technological capabilities. Another star system's planet is most often indicated as the birthplace of beings who come into contact with eyewitnesses./p>

UFO sightings

Modern technologies allow you to go into outer space. This fact strengthens our assumptions that aliens can come to us from other worlds using even more advanced space technology.


It is known that the human brain often generates hallucinations, which can be either pathological (caused by a disease) or natural. All people, being on the border between sleep and wakefulness, experience hypnagogic hallucinations, although they very rarely remember them. It is claimed that UFO contacts are a consequence of altered states of consciousness provoked by some situation, such as stress or biochemical changes in the brain. In an altered state of consciousness, hallucinations take place, which are imprinted in the subconscious. Only vague memories remain of them, which, however, are able to break into consciousness again during nightmares or regression hypnosis.

UFO sightings

Unusual psychic contact in the bedroom: aliens appeared to the contactee in a vision. According to one of the theories of the origin of UFOs, they are not material, but extrasensory in nature.

Airships (Blimps)

The theory of the origin of UFOs, which emerged in the late XIX - early XX century, suggested that the UFO phenomenon was caused by fantastic flying ships that appeared ahead of their time. During this period, rumors circulated that an ingenious inventor had developed an aircraft that he regularly tested. In Boston, a man named Tillingast even claimed to be the inventor of this device, but he was soon exposed as an impostor. It is highly unlikely that the answer to the riddle lies in the incident described, as no airships of that type have appeared since. The theory of secret airships is still alive today, and some ufologists believe that airships were secretly used for reconnaissance during the time of the reported incidents. The appearance of an airship pilot in Mansfield, England in 1989, who passed off his device as a UFO, further supports this theory. A pilot constructed a homemade airship in his yard and flew it at night with friends. They decorated it with flashing spotlights to make it resemble a spaceship. In an April Fool's prank, a prankster landed a decorated airship on the motorway with a mannequin in a silver spacesuit sitting in it, causing traffic to come to a halt.

Other dimensions

Physicists have identified three dimensions: length, width, and height. However, in their quest to understand the universe, they have hypothesized the existence of additional dimensions that are beyond our comprehension. It is even possible that some creatures may inhabit these dimensions. To a two-dimensional being, which cannot perceive thickness, a hand breaking through the thin paper film on which it lives would appear supernatural. The hand appears suddenly and grows in size, damaging the paper, before shrinking and disappearing without a trace. If other dimensions exist and their inhabitants can move through our world, their travels may be perceived as miraculous, similar to UFO sightings.

Environmental pollution

It has been hypothesized that an increase in the level of microwave energy and other types of electromagnetic radiation saturating the planet's atmosphere these days can provoke chemical changes in the brain, which can give rise to supernatural hallucinations in some people.

Earth Lights

It is known that rock layers and crystals, when under pressure, produce electrical signals. Laboratory experiments, during which the crushing of the stone was removed by rapid, show that small and short-term, but visible to the eye flashes hovering around the split rock are formed. According to this theory, much larger and more stable lights can form in special zones with appropriate geological conditions. They can ionize the atmosphere, move through magnetic fields and be perceived as UFOs.


It is firmly established that at least part of UFO sightings and contacts with aliens are staged for a variety of purposes. Some forgers seek to get rich, others — to become famous as having experienced an unusual experience, and others — just to enjoy the fact that they managed to innocently prank so many people. Often the falsification begins as a simple joke that gets out of control. Others take it too seriously, and the joker can no longer admit everything without exposing himself or other people who believed his stories to ridicule. Despite the widespread falsifications, they can be exposed in no more than 1% of cases.

Imaginative personalities

Psychological studies conducted since 1989 show that some people, who make up an insignificant percentage of the entire population, have such vivid fantasies and dreams that it is difficult for them to distinguish them from reality. Such people, called imaginative personalities, often have an eidetic memory that stores imaginative memories of even the earliest childhood. These people, who have such a rich visual imagination, differ more and more from others as they grow up; often they cannot draw a clear line between reality and fiction, which other children easily do. They experience so-called psychic experiences and claim to see ghosts, brownies or aliens.


Optical effects in the atmosphere can cause mirages similar to what people see in the desert, when an oasis suddenly appears among the sands, disappearing as they approach. The impression of water on sand arises due to the distortion of light rays and changes in the refractive properties of air when heated. In the sky, especially in summer, a similar phenomenon may occur as a result of distortion of the light of stars or lights of buildings located on the ground. Some UFO sightings are indeed due to this effect, although there is no reason to consider the appearance of mirages a frequent phenomenon.


In ancient times, myths and legends spread around the world and were passed down from generation to generation. And although people often made up tall tales to impress or achieve the desired effect (for example, they did not tell children to go to the forest because a terrible monster lives there), most folklorists agree that many myths have at least some basis in the form of a real event or collective memory. Since then, the world has changed, and today stories spread around the world almost instantly with the help of television, the Internet and other media. But has this changed the complex nature of the relationship between fact and fiction, which still generates legends and mythology? Is it possible that the desire to go beyond the boundaries of our planet and find new life in the universe gives rise to the mythology of the space age?


Some people suffer from a strange disease that causes them to periodically lose consciousness and briefly "fall asleep" at any time of the day, which can be caused by various stimuli, such as a flash of light. After a while, the narcoleptic wakes up and continues his studies without even realizing that he was asleep. It is believed that under the influence of bright light, narcoleptics are able to fall asleep, see memorable dreams and, quite possibly, experience the experience of encountering UFOs and close contact with aliens in a dream. Then the narcoleptic wakes up, discovers a gap in time and often assumes that he has been communicating with aliens all this time. In some cases, psychologists, when examining eyewitnesses of close contacts, really managed to detect signs of narcolepsy.

Nazi technology

It is known that Nazi Germany was developing an amazing secret weapon in the last years of the Second World War. The FAU rockets that bombed London in 1944-1945, a decade later formed the basis of spacecraft created by the efforts of German scientists who participated in American programs to create combat missiles, and later in space programs. There is evidence that in February 1945, a disc-shaped aircraft was tested at a German military training ground in the Harz Mountains. According to official data, it was subsequently destroyed so that after the end of the war it would not fall into the hands of the enemy. However, this theory claims that the defected Nazis continued these studies, possibly in the Arctic, and that their work explains the waves of flying saucers that swept the United States and Scandinavia shortly after the end of the war.

The experience of leaving the body

This is one of the most common mental phenomena in which a person feels as if he is floating or floating outside of his physical self.

Such an experience occurs after taking certain medications, as well as during sleep (such dreams are familiar to every second inhabitant of the planet). Eyewitnesses of close contacts talk about the feeling of floating and even that they see their body from above, as it happens in the state of leaving the body. There is a hypothesis that contacts with UFOs take place precisely in this state, when consciousness visualizes information received from a distant source — perhaps even from another civilization — through a process that researchers of the phenomenon of leaving the body call "distant vision". It is known that people who have experienced such an experience report their mental journeys to remote and hidden places and transmit information about them, which is confirmed by observations from spy satellites. If this is possible in relation to inaccessible regions of the Earth, then could this ability extend to other planets as well?

An experience bordering on death

Modern medicine manages to snatch many people from the embrace of death, who until recently would have been considered doomed. Most of these patients, upon returning to life, tell amazing stories about the events they experienced in an altered state of consciousness. They remember floating freely outside their bodies, seeing bright lights, entering strange worlds and communicating with intelligent beings who returned them back to their bodies. As a rule, these episodes are interpreted as trips to Paradise, and yet the parallels with the stories of abductions have a deeper nature. Apparently, these two phenomena are closely related, although they receive different explanations from eyewitnesses and researchers.

Some believe that we are dealing with the same phenomenon. But does this mean that at least one of these hypotheses — either the alien theory or the theory of borderline experience — corresponds to reality? Is there no other explanation for all such cases, to which both these theories would give way? Or maybe these are just different forms of hallucinations caused by changes in the biochemistry of the brain in moments of extreme stress, similar to each other, since the shock caused by the thought of meeting aliens is similar to the shock experienced when receiving a physical injury or in the face of death?

Perception errors

The vast majority (up to 95%) of UFO sightings are the result of distorted perception of ordinary objects, such as airplanes or stars. As time passes, some of the seemingly unsolvable cases receive a completely banal explanation. There is a widespread point of view among skeptics that all UFO sightings can potentially be considered as perceptual errors; any unexplained cases are actually solvable, we just don't have enough information for this. Nevertheless, statistical studies of many thousands of cases carried out by American and French scientists show that the explained incidents have qualitative differences from the unexplained ones.

Plasma vortices

The physical energy that caused phenomena that were mistaken for UFOs, and was recorded using spectrometers and other equipment installed in special zones, often turned out to be a kind of plasma. Physicists believe that winds such as tornadoes or tornadoes can generate electric vortices that lead to the formation of plasma in the surrounding atmosphere. These plasma vortices can take the form of dark ovals during the day or luminous ones at night. They also generate powerful electric fields, as reported by eyewitnesses.

Laboratory experiments were conducted in Japan, during which artificial plasma vortices with the expected properties were obtained; in addition, traces of their presence were found in underground railway tunnels, where both air vortices and electric fields take place.

Underwater civilizations

Two-thirds of the earth's surface is covered with water. We know less about the ocean depths than we do about the Solar System. In many cases, UFOs appeared from under the water. All this may mean that UFOs belong to a race of beings living in the depths of the oceans, the existence of which we practically do not suspect, except in cases when they themselves want to come into contact with us.

Psychotropic weapons

Neuropsychological studies show that the human brain is susceptible to high-frequency fields, with the help of which the subject can be introduced into an altered state of consciousness and provoke hallucinations. This theory says that the military is conducting experiments to create weapons based on these effects that direct energy rays towards the enemy. Maybe people who have been subjected to an energy attack see bright lights and experience hallucinations, and the influence of modern culture makes them believe that they were attacked by aliens? The panic caused by these experiences makes psychotropic weapons effective. If such a weapon really exists, has it not been tested on civilians and are reports of contacts with aliens explained by its impact?

Time travel

If UFOs are controlled by pilots of unknown origin, then the humanoid appearance and behavior of these creatures contradict the extraterrestrial hypothesis. It begs the question, isn't their interest in us and concern for our DNA just the consequences of an obvious fact — in the face of aliens, we are really dealing with people? In addition, their devices often appear and disappear instantly, and do not soar into the air like rockets, in addition, time distortions are noted with enviable constancy in their presence.

The theory of time travel brings all these considerations together, leading us to the conclusion that UFOs are not alien—controlled aircraft, but time machines piloted by people from our own future. If time travel becomes possible at some stage of human development, then such machines should move not only in time, but also in space (rising into the air, and not staying on the ground), since these concepts are closely intertwined. In addition, we inevitably have to notice travelers who move from our future to our past. These arguments lead us to the conclusion that if we do not find evidence around us that time travelers are flying past us, then time travel is impossible in principle. If they ever become possible, then we should still welcome visitors from the future today. Are they traveling in UFOs?

Birth trauma

All the inhabitants of the Earth are united by a common experience — the act of being born. It is believed that the memory of this moment is hidden in the depths of our subconscious. We remember how we are suddenly pulled out of the darkness into a world flooded with light, where strange creatures study and touch us. These images are akin to stories about aliens who allegedly abducted people, dragged them into brightly lit rooms and subjected them to medical examination. According to this theory, in moments of stress, these memories are replayed again in our consciousness, becoming material for our imagination.

Psychologists suggested comparing whether the memories of abduction are the same for those who were born by caesarean section and those who were born during natural childbirth. No differences could be found. In a broader sense, this hypothesis states that the memories of the abduction may be echoes of a surgical operation performed in childhood, which in many ways correlate with stories about alien contacts. There is some unconfirmed evidence in favor of this version, received from those abducted who underwent surgery in childhood, but this connection has not been properly verified.

Secret aircraft

Aviation technologies are developing rapidly. During the development period, which can last up to several years, high-tech aircraft, especially military ones, are kept in the strictest secrecy. This is evidenced by the history of the creation of the first samples of fighters using the "stele" technology. It is assumed that UFOs may be secret aircraft still under development and possibly created on the basis of fundamentally new propulsion systems, for example, nuclear energy or microwave pulses. In the past, some similar projects failed, and the results of other developments are used today by peaceful inhabitants; the same awaits us in the future. However, it is advantageous for the military to take these devices for UFOs during the testing period, which makes it possible to fly over civilian territories without the risk of information leakage. If this is the case, it is possible that the mistaken assumption of such objects for UFOs is provoked intentionally.

False memory syndrome

Hypnosis studies have shown that memories are not recorded in our memory as on tape. They are subject to change in accordance with a variety of circumstances. If you believe strongly enough in a completely false memory, you can embed it into your consciousness. A person can successfully pass a lie detector test, which will confirm his absolute conviction in the truthfulness of his own words, even if it is just an extremely bright dream. In this sense, reports of abductions, especially those that pop up under hypnosis, can also be based on false memories that have been imprinted as real events under the influence of personal desires, suggestions from a therapist or pressure from ufologists.

Waking dreams

Psychologists have discovered the phenomenon of so-called "lucid dreams", during which people are clearly aware that they are in a state of sleep and can influence their environment. Thanks to this, they experience an experience that dreamers compare to magic. In a lucid dream, people can fly, walk through walls and live in such a vivid imaginary world that it seems to them to be a reality, although they are aware that it is a dream. Approximately the same percentage of people who see lucid dreams regularly come into close contact with aliens and UFOs. Psychological portraits of these groups have many common features, including a rich creative imagination and an eidetic (almost photographic) memory. According to this theory, such people are able to experience lucid dreams in reality, in which a process occurs that is the reverse of lucid dreams in a dream. Their rich imagination seizes control of waking reality and changes it, just as a dreamer shapes the world of his dreams. As a result, there are what are considered to be paranormal phenomena. Thus, a seemingly impossible world of UFOs and aliens can be created, controlling the reality of an individual, but devoid of the tangible reality that other people who are next to an eyewitness could perceive, unless they themselves can experience a lucid dream in reality.

Hollow Earth Theory

This theory, which originated in the 1960s and was promoted by the books of Lord Clancarty (who wrote under the pseudonym Brinsley le Poer Trench), owes its appearance to the first satellite photographs of the Earth, which show something like a huge hole in the polar region of the globe. There was an idea that a UFO is piloted by a secret terrestrial race living in the bowels of the Earth, whose representatives appear and disappear through its poles. Unfortunately, geologists have proved that the Earth has no voids, but the impression of a hole (into which Greenland could fall!) it arose for purely technical reasons due to the use of mosaic optical systems when taking photographs.


Neuropsychologist Dr. Michael Perzinger has put forward a theory about invisible floating clouds of electromagnetic energy that can form in the atmosphere due to natural processes occurring in the Earth's biosphere. Perzinger argues that such fields should have an effect on the temporal lobes of the human brain. Parallels between contacts with UFOs and temporal lobe epilepsy, during which attacks patients note a condition resembling the "Oz factor", a feeling of unreality of what is happening ("like in a dream") and hallucinations, also suggests that contacts with aliens and stimulation of the temporal lobes in the presence of transients should have approximately the same effect on eyewitnesses.


According to ancient occult traditions, especially Eastern ones, thought is able to form physical matter and for a short time bring to life "energy beings" called "tulpa". This idea had the character of firmly rooted cultural beliefs, embodied in reality thanks to mentally gifted individuals. Being created, such a being acquired an independent and real existence. Experiments with telekinesis confirm that a sufficiently strong belief can become a pseudo-reality. Physics has also established that matter and energy are mutually reversible.

According to quantum mechanics, human consciousness plays a crucial role in determining the nature of perceived reality: we do not just observe, but correct and form what we call the real world. Taken together, these ideas suggest the possibility that the strongest belief in the existence of UFOs and aliens, inherent in modern culture, in the minds of mentally gifted individuals like abduction survivors, can generate temporary thought forms from the ether around us.

The Federal hypothesis

According to this point of view, the UFO phenomenon is nothing more than a fabrication and even the product of a government conspiracy, which consisted not in hiding contacts with aliens, but, on the contrary, in staging them. Intelligence agencies, by creating fake documents hinting at secret groups and launching UFO-like flying machines, artificially support the theory of alien visits, which is even more actively promoted by the UFO community, prone to sensationalism and unaware that it is being used as puppets.

The purpose of such falsification is considered to be the desire either to disguise secret experiments (in particular, brainwashing or sociological conditioning), or to justify an arms race, creating the illusion of an "alien" enemy that needs to be kept under control.

Ball lightning

Although its origin remains a mystery, this rare natural phenomenon can appear suddenly in the sky, float in the air, emit light and energy, and then disappear. Ball lightning is a type of plasma, and its existence is now generally accepted by the scientific community. There is a higher form of ball lightning unknown to science - a large and highly mobile accumulation of energy capable of causing large-scale physical effects. This hypothesis is noteworthy.

About author:

Ufologist, PhD, blogger, I go on my own expeditions for UFOs. I use scientific methods to investigate the UAP phenomenon

Serg Toporkov

Ufologist, Ph.D., blogger, I go on my own expeditions for UFOs. I use scientific methods to investigate the UAP phenomenon. Write to me

Related tags:

ufo theories  analisys  angels  extraterrestrial hypothesis  ball lightings  blimps

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